NOVEL APPLICATIONS OF BACTERIOCINS IN FOOD AND IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH
Keywords:: Bacteriocins, , Antibacterial, Food safety, , Food preservation, Human health, Lactic acid bacteria, Nisin
Background: Bacteriocins are proteins groups, produced by gram-positive bacteria having the potential to use as food preservatives and antibacterial agents. Objectives: This review is aim to provide a comprehensive information on bacteriocins and their application. Methodology: Different databases were searched to find relevant information. Results: The protein of bacteriocins is ribosomal synthesized peptides. These proteins are produced by protein synthesis mechanism within a cell with amino acid composition ranging from 30 to 60 amino acids. The peptides have a narrow to wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, and their antibacterial properties remain intact even when exposed to heat. Bacteriocins proteins can be used in hot environments, such as cooking and food preparation, without losing their effectiveness. Additionally, the producer strain of Bacteriocins can provide a degree of self-protection against its own antibacterial peptide. Other than bacteriocins, specific LAB may generate antimicrobial peptides aiding in the preservation and safety of food due to production of cyclic dipeptides. Nisin is non-toxic, produced by generally recognized as safe (GRAS) bacteria, and quickly eliminated in the digestive system. Bacteriocins does not adversely affect the gut microflora. Conclusion: The bacteriocins can provide immunity for foods, allowing processors to maintain their desired microbial balance even after manufacture is complete.
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